Deactivation of the highest risk roads are completed first, working consecutively towards, but not necessarily including, the lower risk roads. The approach is to fully restore the hill slope at the old road location then aggressively seed the exposed soil.
The goal for the flood plain roads is to re-establish natural steam flow patterns, coordinating deactivation with access requirements for in-stream and riparian restoration. Where deactivations of roads occur at fish bearing crossings, a biological prescription that enhances fish habitat is implemented along with the deactivation prescriptions. Fish habitat enhancement occurs to 10 m off each side of the road centerline.
In up-slope areas where there has been slide activity, open slope failures are hydro-seeded with a mixture of grass seed (native seed), slow release fertilizer, and mulch. Grass seeding is effective in reducing fine sediment leeching from the slide.
Grass establishes well on areas of a slide that are relatively stable. Zones of instability are identified the following year by observation of areas of poor grass establishment. Following the deactivation of the roads there is a focus on restoring the unstable portions of the landslides. To stabilize and revegetate the slides an approach called bio-engineering is utilized. Basically this is the use of live willow cuttings to hand build living, self-maintaining, retaining walls.
A common result, in high relief (steep) areas, of some pre-code logging practices is that debris torrents have swept away many of the natural LWD structures rendering the stream system relatively featureless (low pool, riffle, and glide frequency). The bedloading fills in the pools and thalweg (the deepest section of a stream) causing the energy of the stream to be re-distributed towards the stream banks.
As this energy erodes the banks (made even less stable with the lack of large conifer roots), the bedload problem is compounded. While an aggraded thalweg is apparent in the upper, and the lower two-km of Lost Shoe Creek watershed, it is not apparent in the remaining low energy sections of the Kennedy Flats streams.
Only when the high risk up-slope areas have been addressed should the in-stream restoration work proceed. In-stream work is generally divided into two components: riparian (the vegetative buffer strip along a stream) and actual in-stream work.